Proclins Pathology

Early Online

Perspective/ Opinion
“Is Cryptococcus neoformans a “Sleeping Giant” With Deadly Intentions?”
Arpita Singh

Natural calamities, global warming and a change in the overall habitat are directly related to the emergence of newer variety of pathogenic microbes. Cryptococcus neoformans is known more commonly as the causal organism of AIDs-defining illnesses since the last 2 decades. Cryptococcosis or cryptococcal meningitis caused by C. neoformans is usually seen in an immune-compromised mammalian host, causing large scale fatality due to the host’s failure to respond to available therapeutics and drug resistance in the fungus. This pathogen with the ability to re-infect even after lying dormant or be clinically asymptomatic for several years seems to be evolving to a more complex type due to host-pathogenic interaction. More often than not, the seriousness of the infection results due to the resurgence of latent infections in the least –suspecting host. They modulate the host immune responses, manipulates it in their own favor in a manner that is still mostly unknown. Thus, remaining alert and suspicious of this opportunistic pathogen as well as continuing the search for next-generation therapeutics is the need of the hour.

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Mini Review
A Mini-Review: Schistosomiasis and Treatment Strategies
Maha Farid Mohamed Soliman, Hadeer Abd El-Hak Rashed, Ali Hussien Abu Almaaty, and Nahla Soliman El-Shenawy

Several Schistosoma species are human-parasitic, Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium are primarily endemic in Africa and the Middle East. This review focuses on the current status of schistosomiasis and offers some insight into the discovery and design of possible treatment. They accounted for about 85 percent of the global cases recorded. In 78 countries, an estimated 240 million people are affected and close to 800 million are at risk. The pathogenicity of schistosomiasis can cause acute and chronic clinical syndromes. Besides, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction results from infection with S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis has been licensed to induce changes in hematological parameters, with a rise in oxidative stress in lipid peroxide and a decrease in antioxidant variables. Scientists have found that Schistosoma is a destructive genotoxic agent at the molecular level. The praziquantel (PZQ) efficacy, the drug of choice, had been reduced as anti-schistosomal. Scientists still search for antiparasitic drugs from the natural origin for the development of new medications. Before commercial anthelmintics were introduced into the world's different markets, worm infections were controlled by specific plants that based more on belief rather than knowledge. Therefore, parasitological, histological, physiological, and molecular assays should be used either in vitro or in vivo to qualify the effect of any active ingredients against adult S. mansoni.

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Mini Review
An Overview of the Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Gallbladder Cancer
Sonam Tulsyan, Ravi Mehrotra, Balraj Mittal

Gallbladder Cancer (GBC) is an aggressive disease with inters- regional and inters- ethnic variations. The higher incidence and mortality of this malignancy is predominantly found in Chile, Indo- Gangetic plains comprising Northern and Eastern India and Japan. The disease is associated with poor prognosis due to its late presentation. Till date, no biomarker has been established clinically for GBC early detection and management. In addition, information about genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic profiling of GBC is sparsely available. With the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), it is possible to unravel the biological significance of the mutations detected in the genome in a short span of time. The new technology has the potential to uncover good knowledge for developing non- invasive diagnostic liquid biopsy and precision therapies for GBC.

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